Zeus And His Children CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES
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In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was also interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence.
As the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which devoured all things, a concept that was illustrated when the Titan king ate the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.
During the Renaissance , the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to " Father Time " wielding the harvesting scythe. English shear , motivated by Cronus's characteristic act of "cutting the sky" or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus.
The Indo-Iranian reflex of the root is kar , generally meaning "to make, create" whence karma , but Janda argues that the original meaning "to cut" in a cosmogonic sense is still preserved in some verses of the Rigveda pertaining to Indra 's heroic "cutting", like that of Cronus resulting in creation:.
RV In the Song of Ullikummi , Teshub uses the "sickle with which heaven and earth had once been separated" to defeat the monster Ullikummi,  establishing that the "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth , in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between heaven imagined as a dome of stone and earth enabling the beginning of time chronos and human history.
When Greek writers encountered the Semitic deity El , they rendered his name as Cronus. When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and, later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El , by interpretatio graeca , with Cronus.
The association was recorded c. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus , and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus".
It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena , and Egypt to Taautus the son of Misor and inventor of writing.
While the Greeks considered Cronus a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder, believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans, [ citation needed ] the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity, by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus.
Consequently, while the Greeks considered Cronus merely an intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman religion.
The Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honour, and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom.
His association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age eventually caused him to become the god of "time", i.
Nevertheless, among Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria and during the Renaissance , Cronus was conflated with the name of Chronos , the personification of " Father Time ",  wielding the harvesting scythe.
As a result of Cronus's importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture.
The seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week is called in Latin Dies Saturni "Day of Saturn" , which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday.
In astronomy , the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. It is the outermost of the Classical planets the astronomical planets that are visible with the naked eye.
A star HD was named after him in when it was reported to have swallowed its planets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 September Not to be confused with Chronos , the personification of time. For other uses, see Cronus disambiguation.
Ruler of the Titans in Ancient Greek mythology. Other siblings. Main article: Saturn mythology. Timaeus 40e. Translated by W.
Marenbon, John. BRILL, ; pg. Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter in Griechischen , Alexander Hislop had previously asserted in The Two Babylons; or, The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife , Hislop, 2nd ed.
The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo is just a different form of the same word. He was, according to legend, a son of Zeus born to the Makedonian Queen Olympia.
He was a twin son of Zeus and Antiope. He was a son of Zeus and Niobe. He was a son of Zeus, or according to others, of Kephalos and Prokris.
He was a son of Zeus and Kassiopeia. He was a son of Zeus and Elektra, born on the island of Samothrake. One of the pair, Polydeukes, was fathered by Zeus, but the other, Kastor, was the son of Leda's husband Tyndareus.
He was a son of Zeus and Elektra. He was the son of Kalyke, either by Zeus or her husband Aithlios. He was a son of Zeus and Thyia.
She was a daughter of Zeus by Leda or the goddess Nemesis. He was, according to some, a son of Zeus and Pyrrha though others say his father was Pyrrha's husband Deukalion.
He was born in the Boiotian city of Thebes central Greece to Alkmene who was seduced by Zeus in the form of her own husband.
According to some, he was a hero who was confused with the younger Herakles 1. She was a daughter of Zeus and the Libyan queen Lamia.
He was a son of Zeus and an African Nymphe. She was a daughter of Zeus and Io, and mother of Byzas, the eponymous founder of the celebrated city. He was a son of Zeus or, according to others, of Epopeus.
He was a son of Zeus. He was a son of Zeus and the Pleiad Taygete. He was a son of Zeus and Thyia or, according to others, of Aiolos and Enarete.
He was a son of Zeus and Othris. He was a son of Zeus and Europa. He was a son of Zeus and Eurymedousa. He was conceived by three gods--Zeus, Hermes and Poseidon--who urinated upon a bull's hide and buried it in the earth, to grow an earth-born infant.
He was the son of Zeus and Danae. Polydeukes was the son of Zeus and Leda, while his twin brother was the son of Leda's husband Tyndareus.
Rhadamanthys was a son of Zeus and Europa. According to some he was the son of Zeus and a local Nymphe but others say he was a son of Hermes and Rhene.
He was a son of Zeus and Laodameia. He was the twin brother of Amphion and a son of Zeus and Antiope. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae trans.
Grant Roman mythographer C2nd A. Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. Jones Greek travelogue C2nd A. Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.
That Korinthos was a son of Zeus I have never known anybody say seriously except the majority of the Korinthians. LOVED : 1. Niobe, princess of Argos; 2.
Io, princess of Argos; 3. Danae, princess of Argos. Argos, king of Argos; 3. Perseus, king of Mykenai; 4. Epidauros, king of Epidauros.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. Aldrich Greek mythographer C2nd A. Niobe the first mortal woman with whom Zeus had sex bore Zeus a son Argos.
Argos got the rule and named the [region of the] Peloponnesos Argos after himself. She was the first mortal to be embraced by Jupiter [Zeus].
From her was born Argus, who named the town of Argos after his own name. Argus by Niobe, daughter of Phoroneus. Evelyn-White Greek epic C8th or 7th B.
Taygete, Pleiad nymph; 2 - 4. Leda, queen of Sparta; 4. Nemesis, goddess. Lakedaimon, king of Sparta; 2 - 3. Helene, queen of Sparta.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. Poseidon and Zeus are carrying Taygete, daughter of Atlas, and her sister Alkyone.
There are also reliefs of Atlas. Lacedaemon by Taygete, daughter of Atlas. Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2.
Ovid, Fasti 4. Boyle Roman poetry C1st B. Maia, Electra, Taygete [lay] with Jove [Zeus]. Nonnus, Dionysiaca Rouse Greek epic C5th A.
The father of Helene the Greeks like everybody else hold to be not Tyndareus but Zeus. Kalyke, Thessalian princess; 2. Protogeneia, Thessalian princess.
Aithlios, king of Elis; 2. Endymion, king of Elis. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. Pausanias, Description of Greece 5.
Aethlius by Protogenia, daughter of Deucalion. He led Aeolians forth from Thessalia and founded Elis. A man of unrivalled beauty, he was loved by Selene.
When he was given a wish of his choice by Zeus, he chose to remain immortal and unaging in eternal sleep. Maia, nymph of Mt Kyllene; 2. Throughout history Zeus has been depicted as using violence to get his way and terrorize humans.
As god of the sky he has the power to hurl lightning bolts as a weapon. Since lightning is quite powerful and sometimes deadly, it is a bold sign when lightning strikes because it is known that Zeus most likely threw the bolt.
The Iliad is a poem by Homer about the Trojan war and the battle over the City of Troy , in which Zeus plays a major part. Scenes in which Zeus appears include:  .
Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. Some also include Eileithyia , Eris , Enyo and Angelos as their daughters. In the section of the Iliad known to scholars as the Deception of Zeus , the two of them are described as having begun their sexual relationship without their parents knowing about it.
Among mortals were Semele , Io , Europa and Leda for more details, see below and with the young Ganymede although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality.
Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him.
For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.
Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults.
Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.
Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity as doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:.
The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games.
There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there.
Outside of the major inter- polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily.
Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance. With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete.
Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed,  and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features.
The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort",  whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos "boy-Zeus" , often simply the Kouros.
In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Hagia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees.
The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato 's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge.
On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult and hymned as ho megas kouros , "the great youth".
The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus ,  together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees , suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.
The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. The epithet Zeus Lykaios "wolf-Zeus" is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion "Wolf Mountain" , the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia ; Zeus had only a formal connection  with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.
According to Plato ,  a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's.
Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended.
There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis ; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.
This, Cook argues, brings indeed much new 'light' to the matter as Achaeus , the contemporary tragedian of Sophocles , spoke of Zeus Lykaios as "starry-eyed", and this Zeus Lykaios may just be the Arcadian Zeus, son of Aether, described by Cicero.
Again under this new signification may be seen Pausanias ' descriptions of Lykosoura being 'the first city that ever the sun beheld', and of the altar of Zeus, at the summit of Mount Lykaion, before which stood two columns bearing gilded eagles and 'facing the sun-rise'.
Further Cook sees only the tale of Zeus' sacred precinct at Mount Lykaion allowing no shadows referring to Zeus as 'god of light' Lykaios.
Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground.
Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios "kindly" or "honeyed" while other cities had Zeus Chthonios "earthy" , Zeus Katachthonios "under-the-earth" and Zeus Plousios "wealth-bringing".
These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter , and also the heroes at their tombs.
Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus.
Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius "the nurturing" , depending on whether you believe Pausanias , or Strabo.
Ancient Molossian kings sacrificed to Zeus Areius. Strabo mention that at Tralles there was the Zeus Larisaeus.
In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men.
With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna , where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.
Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo , the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis , a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.
The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus , where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak.
When the Odyssey was composed circa BC , divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi , who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches.
Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera , but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.
The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander 's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War.
Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta , where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War.
After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.
Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination see interpretatio graeca with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia.
He, along with Dionysus , absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius. Zeus is occasionally conflated with the Hellenic sun god , Helios , who is sometimes either directly referred to as Zeus' eye,  or clearly implied as such.
Hesiod , for instance, describes Zeus' eye as effectively the sun. The Cretan Zeus Tallaios had solar elements to his cult.
In Neoplatonism , Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind , specifically within Plotinus 's work the Enneads  and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.
Zeus is mentioned in the New Testament twice, first in Acts — When the people living in Lystra saw the Apostle Paul heal a lame man, they considered Paul and his partner Barnabas to be gods, identifying Paul with Hermes and Barnabas with Zeus, even trying to offer them sacrifices with the crowd.
Two ancient inscriptions discovered in near Lystra testify to the worship of these two gods in that city. The second occurrence is in Acts the name of the ship in which the prisoner Paul set sail from the island of Malta bore the figurehead "Sons of Zeus" aka Castor and Pollux.
The deuterocanonical book of 2 Maccabees , 2 talks of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes , who in his attempt to stamp out the Jewish religion, directed that the temple at Jerusalem be profaned and rededicated to Zeus Jupiter Olympius.
Pistis Sophia , a Gnostic text discovered in and possibly written between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD alludes to Zeus. He appears there as one of five grand rulers gathered together by a divine figure named Yew, as the manuscript states.
Depictions of Zeus as a bull, the form he took when abducting Europa , are found on the Greek 2- euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders.
Mary Beard , professor of Classics at Cambridge University , has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Zeus disambiguation. Greek god of the sky and king of the gods.
King of the Gods God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice. Zeus de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in .
Sacred Places. Sacred Islands. Sacred Mountains. Rites of passage. Hellenistic philosophy. Other Topics.
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