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Sūn Wùkōng (chinesisch 孫悟空 / 孙悟空, W.-G. Sun Wu-k'ung) ist im klassischen chinesischen Jahrhundert machte sich der Mönch Xuanzang von China aus auf den Weg nach Indien, um die The New Legends of Monkey (Japanische Serie, auch in Großbritannien, Südafrika, Australien und Neuseeland populär). Die Reise nach Westen (chinesisch 西遊記 / 西游记, Pinyin Xī yóu jì, W.-G. Hsi Yu Chi, Jyutping Wu Cheng'en: Monkeys Pilgerfahrt – Eine chinesische Legende. Übersetzung von Georgette Allegory in Hou Xiyou ji. Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR), Band 13 (Dez., ), S. 35–55 (JSTOR ). EVERY Chinese knows the Xiyouji?id42, the story of the Monkey. King. legend The myth of Li's feat tells us this: When Li entered the water to tame the. Chinese Myths and Legends: The Monkey King and Other Adventures | Fu, Shelley, Yee, Patrick | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher. The Monkey King: A Classic Chinese Tale for Children is inspired by Chinese folktales and legends about Monkey, King of the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit.
Mitte Chinese, Swon Ngu-kuwng Seine Inspiration kommt auch von dem White Monkey Legenden aus der chinesischen Chu Reich ( vor Christus). EVERY Chinese knows the Xiyouji?id42, the story of the Monkey. King. legend The myth of Li's feat tells us this: When Li entered the water to tame the. Chinese Myths and Legends: The Monkey King and Other Adventures | Fu, Shelley, Yee, Patrick | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher.
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He clearly is a hero in Chinese mythology: the most powerful and divine creature, controller of the water.
Dragons were the symbol of the emperor, bringing luck and good fortune. It is said that the legendary Yellow Emperor turned into a dragon and flew to heaven when he died.
You might have seen them in front of houses, palaces or temples and they have been placed there because people believe in their protective powers.
Often they come as a pair, the male holding a ball that represents the world under his paw, the female protecting a lion cub. According to Chinese mythology, the big bang happened when the god Pangu cracked the egg that he was sleeping in.
This egg contained Yin and Yang, which then separated. The lighter Yang rose to create the sky, Yin formed earth and Pangu made sure both were held in place with his hands and feet.
There is a story to explain why Chinese new year is celebrated with lots of noise. Once there was an ugly, scary monster called Nian who regularly came down from the mountains to hunt people.
The villagers were so afraid of it that they locked themselves in their houses on the days it was coming. One wise old man in the village suggested it would be better if they stuck together and chased the monster away.
So they did, with the noise of drums and fireworks. The monster was so surprised and afraid that it ran around until it was completely exhausted and the villagers were able to kill it.
This is how the first Chinese New Year celebration started. Here is one popular version of how the animals were allocated to the Chinese zodiac: The Jade Emperor announced a race for all animals to compete for the twelve places in the Chinese zodiac.
The rat was supposed to wake up her neighbour the cat in the morning, but simply forgot. It moves very fast and stays in the trees all the time, jumping from one tree to another like a bird.
Since the Erya dictionary, which glosses words from the Chinese classics , has the oldest textual usage of mengsong , the name presumably comes from a lost pre-Qin classic.
Guo Pu's commentary gives the synonym menggui and says tr. They are reared as rat catchers better than cats. The Bencao gangmu subsumes mengsong under the guoran "monkey" entry tr.
Luo : "Mengsong is also called Menggui. It is small Guoran. Purple and black, it is found in Jiaozhi. It is raised in houses.
It catches mice even better than a cat or a leopard. The simians higher primates of China include two families of Old World monkeys Cercopithecidae and lesser apes or gibbons Hylobatidae , lit.
The Monkey is the ninth of the twelve-year animal cycle in the " Chinese zodiac ". For example, one Year of the Monkey begins February 8, Several mythical or semi-mythical monkeys are mentioned above in the Terminology section.
Japanese kakuen as both a factual "large ape found in western mountains" and a mythological " single-sex species that abducts and mates with humans"; said to be either all males viz.
Many Chinese mythological creatures are said to resemble monkeys or apes. Based on the data for the juefu , xingxing , and feifei , Van Gulik concluded that,.
In the first place, glimpses caught of some larger simioid. In the case of the [ feifei ], the "human" face, long lips, and long red hair could apply to the orangutan.
I leave it to zoologists to decide whether it is at all possible that two thousand years ago the habitat of the orangutan could have reached as far north as Indo-China.
Second, Chinese impressions gathered during encounters with the aborigines. Ever since during the Han dynasty the southwest was brought into the orbit of Chinese administration, these mountain tribes have succeeded in retaining their identity — even though Chinese rule was oppressive, and punitive expeditions against them launched as late as the end of the nineteenth century.
Relations between the tribes and the Chinese were always uneasy, and Chinese tales about the aborigines often mention their killing and abducting Chinese citizens.
The theory that [ juefu ], [ xingxing ], and [ feifei ] are the combined result of such observations is also supported by the fact that in the oldest pictures preserved, the human features prevail over the simian.
Like the Indian monkey-god Hanuman in Hindu mythology , Chinese deities sometimes appear in the guise of monkeys. The best-known of these is Sun Wukong , the main protagonist in Wu Cheng'en 's picaresque novel Journey to the West , also known as Monkey.
Wolfram Eberhard explains, "It is not only in Indian mythology that the monkey plays a leading part; it is also found in South Chinese and in Tibetan legend.
Several varieties of monkey are native to South China; and according to one Tibetan myth, the Tibetan people are descended from a monkey", namely Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa.
The Soushenji 12, tr. These animals abducted women and sent them back when they became pregnant. If the baby were not accepted, the woman would have to die.
Therefore these children were raised and they received the clan name Yang. For this reason this clan occurred quite frequently in Southwest Shu.
According to orally transmitted accounts collected from the Miao ethnic group of China, at first there were no people, but rather the ancestors of modern humans were monkeys.
One day the monkeys went to play in a cave, where a divine dragon resided. The dragon blew upon the monkeys its divine breath, which caused them to be transformed into modern human beings.
Yang Chinese religions use monkeys and apes as metaphors for people. In Chinese folk religion , some shape-shifting monkeys were said to be human ancestors.
In Daoism , monkeys, particularly gibbons, were believed have longevity like a xian "transcendent; immortal".
In Chinese Buddhism , on the one hand, monkeys symbolized restless and foolish humans, and on the other hand, Gautama Buddha was supposedly a benevolent monkey king in an earlier incarnation.
Chinese traditional folk religion regards monkeys as supernatural beings. Eberhard cites early reports that monkeys "could talk", "knew the past", and "were like men".
Jan Jakob Maria de Groot 's classic study of Chinese religions distinguishes "monkey demons" and "were-monkeys", both of which could shape shift between a monkey and a human.
While a monkey demon "often acts as a dangerous devil" frequently transforming in order to have sex with a human , a were-monkey was usually virtuous e.
De Groot describes them as either "a lewd fornicator of wives and maids" or "a seductress, in beautiful female forms, of adults and inexperienced youths, whose senses it bewitches at the detriment of their health".
For instance, the 4th century In Search of the Supernatural records a monkey-demon story from the era of Emperor Xiaowu of Jin.
These women once upon a time simultaneously got in the family way, and each of them gave birth to three children that danced and hopped while discharging from the bowels.
He interrogated them, and they avowed they had seen a young man dressed with a yellow silk robe and a white gauze cap, a most lovely personage, jesting and chatting quite like a man tr.
Legends about monkey-human interbreeding are common, as noted above Jue ape-men copulate with women and Zhou monkey-women copulate with men.
The Youyang zazu tr. The Baopuzi lists ways to protect oneself from mountain demons associated with different astronomical days chap. One of his ministers suggested:.
I have recently heard about a virgin girl in [Yue] who has come from the southern forest. The people of that country praise her martial skill.
I request you to summon her, and grant her an interview at once. When the virgin set out for the north for an audience with the king; she met on her way an old man.
He said his name was Mr. You just test me! Before the falling leaves had reached the ground, however, the girl had caught them all on her sword , Mr.
Yuan" were considered to be spiritually powerful. Yang Youji and Yin Ru were both men of highly refined skills. In the courtyard of the palace of Chu there was a magical white ape, which even the best archers could not hit, and so the king of Chu asked Yang Youji to try.
Yang Youji picked up his bow and arrows and went to try. Before shooting, he had already pinned it with his arrows; with a single shot, the ape fell.
Thus, Yang Youji had the ability to hit his target before actually hitting his target. Knoblock and Riegel The king of Chu had a white ape.
When the king himself shot at it, the ape grabbed his arrows to show off. He ordered Yang Youji to shoot it. When [Yang] began to draw the bow and aim the arrow, [even] before he shot, the ape hugged a tree and shrieked.
This is hitting the target before hitting the target. Major To weary the spiritual intelligence by trying to unify things without knowing that they are already identical is called "three in the morning.
Once upon a time, there was a monkey keeper who was feeding little chestnuts to his charges. All the monkeys were angry.
Without adversely affecting either the name or the reality of the amount that he fed them, the keeper acted in accordance with the feelings of the monkeys.
He too recognized the mutual dependence of "this" and " that. This is called "dual procession. Mair — Master Chuang passed by the King of Wei wearing patched clothing made of coarse cloth and shoes tied together with twine.
When a scholar possesses the Way and integrity but cannot put them into practice, he is wretched. When his clothing is tattered and his shoes have holes in them, he is poor, not wretched.
This is called, 'not having met with the right time': Has your majesty not seen the high-climbing gibbon? When it is on a nanmu, catalpa, or camphor tree [all tall, straight trees], the gibbon grasps the branches with its hands and feet or wraps around them with its tail, moving nimbly among them.
Even Yi and P'engmeng [the famous mythical archers Houyi and his disciple] would not be able to take accurate aim at it.
When, however, the gibbon is on a silkworm thorn, ramosissimus, thorny limebush, or matrimony vine [all short, thorny bushes], it moves furtively and glances sideways, shaking and trembling all the while.
This is not because the gibbon's sinews and bones have become stiff and lost their suppleness, but because it finds itself in an inconvenient situation and cannot show off its ability.
Now, if I am situated under a benighted ruler and confused ministers, and still wish not to be wretched, how could I be so?
Mair The Daoist discipline of daoyin "guide and pull" is based on the notion that circulating and absorbing qi "breath; life force" in the body can lead to longevity or even immortality.
Long-limbed animals were believed to be innately adept at absorbing qi and thus acquire "occult powers, including the ability to assume human shape, and to prolong their life to several hundred years" van Gulik For example, the c.
Van Gulik says, "The gibbon resembles the macaque, but he is larger, and his colour is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing.
The Baopuzi lists animals associated with longevity, including chap. Ware , "A macaque may evolve into an ape after years.
After another years it evolves into Jue, and Jue will evolve into Chanchu toad after 1, years. Van Gulik , noting that this widely quoted passage "sets up the gibbon as the gentleman among the primates — a position he has kept till the present day.
When Buddhism was first transmitted into China circa the 2nd century CE, monkeys were already an ancient tradition in Buddhist texts.
Sutras frequently quote the Buddha to use "monkey" similes. The Dhammapada , tr. Buddharakkhita says: "The craving of a person given to heedless living grows like a creeper.
Like the monkey seeking fruits in the forest, he leaps from life to life tasting the fruits of his kamma.
Bodhi says: "Just as a monkey roaming through a forest grabs hold of one branch, lets that go and grabs another, then lets that go and grabs still another, so too that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness' arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night.
Several of the Jataka tales describe the Buddha's past lives as a monkey or an ape see the Four harmonious animals.
In the heart of a Himavat there was a large tree, which bore excellent fruits even bigger than the palmyra nuts having exceedingly sweet flavor; lovely hue and fragrance, which no man had ever seen or noticed before.
This tree was also the abode of several monkeys; and the Bodhisatta was born as the king of those monkeys. He was much larger in size than his followers; and was more compassionate and virtuous than others.
One day, the monkey king noticed that a branch of the tree had grown just over the stream. So, he instructed the monkeys not to let any fruit grow on that branch if they wished to enjoy the fruits for a longer period.
He then ordered his men to hunt for the tree in and around the river-bank which bore the fruit. When they saw the monkeys enjoying those fruits, which their king wanted to have so eagerly, they attacked the monkeys mercilessly with volleys of arrows.
Witnessing the approaching attacking royal soldiers the Bodhisatta jumped on a mountain peak, which the other monkeys were not likely to copy.
There, in order to save his friends he seized a strong rooted tall cane with his legs and bending it towards the tree jumped back and caught hold of the branch of the tree.
He then called upon the other monkeys to use him as a bridge to jump upon the mountain peak. Taking advantage of the situation all the monkeys jumped on the mountain and darted away quickly.
The monkey king was, however, terribly bruised and injured by being trampled by his mates when acting as a bridge for them.
Soon he swooned. The king watched the flight of the monkeys; and also the plight of the monkey king. He was greatly moved by the exemplification of such insight; courage; valor; and sacrifice, which an animal had just displayed to save the lives of his subjects.
The king then ordered his men to delicately bring down the unconscious ape and gently place him on a couch and to render the best possible first aid.
When the great monkey regained his consciousness the king asked him to explain as to why did he endangered his life to save his subjects, who were rather meant to serve or sacrifice.
Like a guru, he then said, "O King! Verily my body is broken but my mind is still sound; I uplifted only those over whom I exercised my royal powers for so long.
Varma Chinese Buddhists adapted and expanded upon these traditional "monkey" metaphors for human qualities. A famous Chan Buddhist example is the Chinese xinyuan " mind monkey ", which is a Buddhist psychological metaphor describing "unsettled; restless; inconstant" mentality.
Monkeys are a traditional theme in Chinese literature. Besides the prominent "Monkey King" Sun Wukong mentioned above, gibbons and macaques are popular images in Chinese poetry.
Van Gulik says nearly every Chinese poet who wrote from the 3rd to 7th centuries referred to the "graceful movements of the gibbon and his saddening calls".
Reflecting the simial likenesses among humans, monkeys, and apes, many languages symbolically use "monkey; ape" words in reference to people.
A sharp distinction was drawn … between the superior gibbon and the inferior macaque. The macaque, frequently coming down to inhabited areas to forage, and therefore often seen and easily caught, became a familiar sight in daily life.
Trained macaques formed part of the performances of travelling showmen, amusing young and old alike by their clever tricks. The gibbon, on the contrary, inhabiting as it did the upper canopy of the primeval forest, rarely seen and extremely difficult to catch, was regarded as a denizen of the inscrutable, forbidding world of the high mountains and deep valleys, peopled by fairies and goblins.
Accordingly, the macaque was the symbol of human astute trickery but also of human credulity and general foolishness; and the gibbon the symbol of the world of the supernatural, mysterious and remote from man's daily life.
Eberhard describes a traditional Chinese literary motif that monkeys will sometimes seduce and impregnate women, who give birth to either a monkey-child or a monkey spirit.
Thus, in the "popular mind", says Eberhard , a monkey can also symbolize an adulterer. The earliest Chinese monkey-shaped objects Geissemann , believed to have been belt hooks , date from the late Eastern Zhou period 4th—3rd centuries BCE and depict a gibbon with outstretched arms and hook-shaped hands.
The oldest extant painting of a monkey is attributed to the Buddhist monk and artist Guanxiu — Gibbons became a popular subject for Chinese painters for example, Yi Yuanji , fl.
Geissemann —7. Monkeys are a frequent motif in modern Chinese art. Another frequent image is a monkey holding a peach, as in the 16th-century novel Fengshen Yanyi , which refers to a legend that a monkey stole the peaches of Immortality from the garden of Xi Wangmu "Queen Mother of the West".
The familiar three wise monkeys are a Japanese, rather than Chinese, pictorial maxim to "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil". See Monkeys in Japanese culture for more information.
Simians have played a role in traditional Chinese medicine , "which maintains that the meat, bones and livers of monkeys have various curative effects, ranging from detoxification to improving sex drive" Chen Chinese state-owned medicine companies buy about 2 tons of monkey bones annually, estimated as "taken from at least 1, primates.
The Bencao gangmu lists pharmacological uses for four monkeys. The mihou "monkey; macaque" Read no. Read notes "The placenta, liver, and bile of the gibbon are used in Japanese Domestic medicine.
This refers to the Daoist bigu "avoiding grains" fasting technique associated with achieving xian "transcendence; immortality".
Monkey meat, as mentioned above in the Bencao gangmu , was traditionally considered both a medicine and a delicacy in Chinese cuisine. Several Chinese classics record the practice.
The Lüshi chunqiu tr. Knoblock and Reigel lists roast "lips of the xingxing ape" among the five finest meats. The Yiwuzhi tr.
Eberhard records a "special soup made of monkey head was typical for southern peoples. Major et al has a story about eating monkeys: "A man from Chu had some boiled monkey meat that he gave to his neighbors.
They thought it was dog meat and found its flavor pleasing. Later, when they heard it was monkey, they knelt down and vomited all they had eaten.
This was a case of not even beginning to know about flavor. Qing emperors ate monkey brains during feasts known as the Manchu Han Imperial banquet Gayley According to Stephen Chen, the son of chef Joyce Chen , Qing emperors "were partial to scooping out the brain of a living monkey for a tasty treat, and the practice continues to this day, particularly in some southern provinces" He allowed the guests to play a cat and mouse game nude in the forest to amuse Daji.
Once, she saw a farmer walking barefoot on ice and ordered his feet cut off so she could study them and figure out why they were so resistant to low temperatures.
A bronze cylinder covered with oil was heated like a furnace with charcoal beneath until its sides became extremely hot.
The victim was made to walk on top of the slowly heating cylinder and he was forced to shift his feet to avoid the burning. The oily surface made it difficult for the victim to maintain his position and balance.
If the victim fell into the charcoal below, he would be burnt to death. The victim was forced to dance and scream in agony before dying while the observing King Zhou and Daji would laugh in delight.
The mogwai are demons who seek to harm human. They reproduce sexually with the arrival of the rains, which symbolizes the abundance and fertility.
The mara causes people to sin and self-destruction. In modern cinema these creatures inspired the Gremlins of the homonym movie.
In modern Chinese folklore the term refers usually to ghosts that may take vengeance on humans. In order to repent their sins, people sacrifice fake paper banknotes so that gui can have funds to use in their afterlife Chinese after life is regulated by a complex bureaucracy.
Yaogui spirits are malevolent animal spirits or fallen celestial deities who acquired magical powers through the practice of Taoism.
Their goal is to gain immortality and the subsequent deification. Not all Yaojing are demons: Bai Gu Jing for example, was a skeleton which later became a demon.
Many Yaojing are fox spirits, or pets of deities. Yaogui kings command lesser demon minions. In Chinese folklore they populate the Di Yu.
Bai Gu Jing the white bones demon is a yaogui of Journey to the West which appears to Sun Wukong and his company as an innocent girl who has left the parents in search of food.
The Magic Sun, due to its nature, is capable to see the actual appearance of the monster and kills the girl. The episode will lead to a first break between the monkey and Xuanzang or Xuanzang.
The second appearance of the monster is in the guise of the murdered young mother. Again Wukong recognizes the deceit and kills her. This event will lead to a second rupture between Xuanzang and Sun because of the vehemence of the monkey.
According to Xuanzang all beings deserve salvation. Anyway, considering all the many variations, this type of monster is always capable to create illusions.
It is believed that the spirit of a person who has committed sin of greed is damned with a punishment for retaliation: after death, the ghost is condemned to a perpetual state of insatiable hunger.
But the mouth is too small to ingest food. Its skin is green or gray. It infests especially kitchens and streets, always looking for offers or decomposed food.
They feed on everything. There are different types, some can spit flames and others are skeletal. They occur during the Festival of the Hungry Ghosts.
They are corpses back to life with the sole purpose of killing the living to absorb their vital essence or qi.
They resurrect when the soul of the deceased can not leave the body because of induced death or for misconduct. By day he remains in his coffin or hides in the dark, in the caves.
During the night it walks like a zombies, with stiff arms. According to Ji Xiaolan, during Qing Dynasty, the Jiangshi can be classified into two groups: those just dead returning to life, and those who have been buried for a long time but which still have not decomposed.
The Jiangshi are Chinese spirits who have the power to breathe life into corpses, and also to build a body with bones or rotten flesh.
They have red eyes, sharp claws, and greenish skin. They may be in different states, from those newly deceased to those decaying.
The skin is often pale or grey. Following Western influence, the Jiangshi has taken some of the characteristics of the vampire, like sucking blood.
Vampire For many Buddhist schools the duration of the intermediate state generally lasts seven days or more to describe this amount of time Buddhism uses mostly the number seven, for example, seven weeks, or 49 days.
But if a person dies by an unnatural death and if the dead had violent or upsetting feelings, this person is likely to become a You Hun Ye Gui, delaying the reincarnation or risking even to remain trapped in the intermediate state forever.
They appears wailing under the tree at night, sometimes carrying a baby. To invoke them, they have to tie a red string around the Banana tree trunk, fixing it with sharp nails and then they tie the other end of the rope to their bed.
The consequences are often disastrous: if people do not fulfill their promise to free the ghost once they get the lottery win, they will suffer a horrible death.
Ghosts bounded to specific locations on Earth, such as their place of burial or a place they had a strong attachment to when they were alive.
The spirits of the hanged, the people who committed suicide, or those sentenced to death. They are usually depicted with their long red tongues lolling from their mouth.
A ghost who takes the appearance of a friendly old man or woman. They are the ghosts of the servants in wealthy families.
Some seems like a witch, similar to those of fairy tales; not always they are positive character. The ghost of a vengeful and angry woman dressed in a long white dress is probably the image that most influenced Japanese and Hong Kong horror cinema in the last two decades.
In the tradition, it refers to the red dressed ghost of a woman who committed suicide. Generally it is linked to injustice, such as a rape or moral unfairness.
She returns to take revenge. In the tradition the red color in the ghost stories symbolizes anger and revenge.
In some variations the ghost manifests itself as a beautiful girl who seduces her victims to suck their Yang essence. The male variant, Nan Gui , is rarely depicted.
This type of female ghost is similar to the Succubus , demons in female form that appears in dreams in order to seduce men, usually through sexual activity.
The male counterpart is the Incubus.